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It's just one of the Jedi mind tricks which captivated audiences around the world, along with Luke Skywalker's ability to move objects by the power of thought and Darth Vader choking enemies to death. As far-fetched as they seem, the Star Wars films - including The Rise of Skywalker, released today - were inspired by a swinging sixties hippy movement who had naked hot tub meditation sessions and believed in a race of superhumans. InStanford university student Mike Murphy accidentally wandered into a religious teachings class about Indian mystic Sri Auribindo, who believed that some humans - known as siddhis - could harness superpowers. The Hindus and Buddhists have long believed that spiritual practice — like yoga — could raise people to siddhis, capable of extraordinary feats, from an ability to master pain to being able to read minds. Inat the age of 34, he declared he had superpowers after using the power of his mind to change the outcome of a San Francisco baseball game.

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Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and influential thinker of the early twentieth century. Working initially in close collaboration with Joseph Breuer, Freud elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is the proper province of psychology. Freud was born in Frieberg, Moravia inbut when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna where he was to live and work until the last years of his life. He always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavoring to extend the compass of human knowledge, and to this end rather than to the practice of medicine he enrolled at the medical school at the University of Vienna in He received his medical degree inand having become engaged to be married inhe rather reluctantly took up more Invited inside erotic mind control and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital.

Shortly after his marriage inwhich was extremely happy and gave Freud six children—the youngest of whom, Anna, was to herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst—Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material that he based his theories and pioneering techniques on.

InFreud spent the greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot who was at that time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions.

When he returned to Vienna, Freud experimented with hypnosis but found that its beneficial effects did not last. At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, they sometimes gradually abated. The treatment was to enable the patient to recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms.

This technique, and the theory from which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in Hysteriatly published by Freud and Breuer in Shortly thereafter, however, Breuer found that he could not agree with what he regarded as the excessive emphasis which Freud placed upon the sexual origins and content of neuroses, and the two parted company, with Freud continuing to work alone to develop and refine the theory and practice of psychoanalysis.

Inafter a protracted period of self-analysis, he published The Interpretation of Dreamswhich is generally regarded as his greatest work. This was greatly facilitated inwhen he was invited to give a course of lectures in the United States, which were to form the basis of his book Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. He was also not averse to critically revising his views, or to making fundamental alterations to his most basic principles when he considered that the scientific evidence demanded Invited inside erotic mind control was most clearly evidenced by his advancement of a completely new tripartite idegoand super-ego model of the mind in his work The Ego and the Id.

He was initially greatly heartened by attracting followers of the intellectual caliber of Adler and Jung, and was correspondingly disappointed when they both went on to found rival schools of psychoanalysis—thus giving rise to the first two of many schisms in the movement—but he knew that such disagreement over basic principles had been part of the early development of every new science. After a life of remarkable vigor and creative productivity, he died of cancer while exiled in England in Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a of diverse factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought.

As indicated above, both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a rather different nature. This analysis revealed to him that the love and admiration which he had felt for his father were mixed with very contrasting feelings of shame and hate such a mixed attitude he termed ambivalence.

This was to become the personal though by no means exclusive basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex.

Secondly, and at a more general level, must be taken of the contemporary scientific climate in which Freud lived and worked. In most respects, the towering scientific figure of nineteenth century science was Charles Darwin, who had published his revolutionary Origin of Species when Freud was four years old. The evolutionary doctrine radically altered the prevailing conception of man—whereas before, man had been seen as a being different in nature from the members of the animal kingdom by virtue of his possession of an immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity.

This made it possible and plausible, for the first time, to treat man as an object of scientific investigation, and to conceive of the vast and varied range of human behavior, and the motivational causes from which it springs, as being amenable in principle to scientific explanation.

Much of the creative work done in a whole variety of diverse scientific fields over the next century was to be inspired by, and derive sustenance from, this new world-view, which Freud with his enormous esteem for science, accepted implicitly. An even more important influence on Freud however, came from the field of physics.

The second fifty years of the nineteenth century saw monumental advances in contemporary physics, Invited inside erotic mind control were largely initiated by the formulation of the principle of the conservation of energy by Helmholz.

This principle states, in effect, that the total amount of energy in any given physical system is always constant, that energy quanta can be changed but not annihilated, Invited inside erotic mind control that consequently when energy is moved from one part of the system, it must reappear in another part.

The progressive application of this principle led to monumental discoveries in the fields of thermodynamics, electromagnetism and nuclear physics which, with their associated technologies, have so comprehensively transformed the contemporary world. From there it was but a short conceptual step—but one which Freud was the first to take, and on which his claim to fame is largely grounded—to the view that there is such a thing as psychic energythat the human personality is also an energy-system, and that it is the function of psychology to investigate the modifications, transmissions and conversions of psychic energy within the personality which shape and determine it.

Freud was arguably the first thinker to apply deterministic principles systematically to the sphere of the mental, and to hold that the broad spectrum of human behavior is explicable only in terms of the usually hidden mental processes or states which determine it. Thus, instead of treating the behavior of the neurotic as being causally inexplicable—which had been the prevailing approach for centuries—Freud insisted, on the contrary, on treating it as behavior for which it is meaningful to seek an explanation by searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned.

This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of which we are unaware and over which we have no control. An unconscious mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to be out of consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannotexcept through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to the forefront of consciousness.

The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, either identified with consciousness, or an object of consciousness. To employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon the part which is amenable to direct inspection—the conscious mind. Instincts, for Freud, are the principal motivating forces in the mental realm, and as such they energise the mind in all of its functions.

There are, he held, an indefinitely large of such instincts, but these can be reduced to a small of basic ones, which he grouped into two broad genericEros the life instinctwhich covers all the self-preserving and erotic instincts, and Thanatos the death instinctwhich covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty. Thus it is a mistake to interpret Freud as asserting that all human actions spring from motivations which are sexual in their origin, since those which derive from Thanatos are not sexually motivated—indeed, Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of all sexual energy in the annihilation of the self.

Having said that, it is undeniably true that Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, human actions, and human behavior which was new and Invited inside erotic mind control many, shockingarguing as he does that sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth the theory of infantile sexualityand that sexual energy libido is the single most important motivating force in adult life. However, a crucial qualification has to be added here—Freud effectively redefined the term sexuality to make it cover any form of pleasure which is or can be derived from the body.

Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energized or driven from birth by the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure. Initially, infants gain such release, and derive such pleasure, from the act of sucking.

Freud accordingly terms this the oral stage of development. This is followed by a stage in which the locus of pleasure or energy release is the anus, particularly in the act of defecation, and this is accordingly termed the anal stage. Then the young child develops an interest in its sexual organs as a site of pleasure the phallic stageand develops a deep sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, and a hatred of the parent of the same sex the Oedipus complex. This, however, gives rise to socially derived feelings of guilt in the child, who recognizes that it can never supplant the stronger parent.

A male child also perceives himself to be at risk. He fears that if he persists in pursuing the sexual attraction for his mother, he may be harmed by the father; specifically, he comes to fear that he may be castrated. This is termed castration anxiety. Both the attraction for the mother and the hatred are usually repressed, and the child usually resolves the conflict of the Oedipus complex by coming to identify with the parent of the same sex.

This happens at the age of five, whereupon the child enters a latency period, in which sexual motivations become much less pronounced. This lasts until puberty when mature genital development begins, and the pleasure drive refocuses around the genital area.

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This, Freud believed, is the sequence or progression implicit in normal human development, and it is to be observed that at the infant level the instinctual attempts to satisfy the pleasure drive are frequently checked by parental control and social coercion. The developmental process, then, is for the child essentially a movement through a series of conflictsthe successful resolution of which is crucial to adult mental health. Many mental illnesses, particularly hysteria, Freud held, can be traced back to unresolved conflicts experienced at this stage, or to events which otherwise disrupt the normal pattern of infantile development.

This model has many points of similarity with the of the mind offered by Plato over 2, years earlier. The theory is termed tripartite simply because, again like PlatoFreud distinguished three structural elements within the mind, which he called idegoand super-ego.

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The id is that part of the mind in which are situated the instinctual sexual drives which require satisfaction; the super-ego is that part which contains the conscience, namely, socially-acquired control mechanisms which have been internalized, and which are usually imparted in the first instance by the parents; while the ego is the conscious self that is created by the dynamic tensions and interactions between the id and the super-ego and has the task of reconciling their conflicting demands with the requirements of external reality. It is in this sense that the mind is to be understood as a dynamic energy-system.

All objects of consciousness reside in the ego; the contents of the id belong permanently to the unconscious mind; while the super-ego is an unconscious screening-mechanism which seeks to limit the blind pleasure-seeking drives of the id by the imposition of restrictive rules. There is some debate as to how literally Freud intended this model to be taken he appears to have taken it extremely literally himselfbut it is important to note that what is being offered here is indeed a theoretical model rather than a description of an observable object, which functions as a frame of reference to explain the link between early childhood experience and the mature adult normal or dysfunctional personality.

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Freud also followed Plato in his of the nature of mental health or psychological well-being, which he saw as the establishment of a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind. Failure to resolve this can lead to later neurosis.

A key concept introduced here by Freud is that the mind possesses a of defense mechanisms to attempt to prevent conflicts from becoming too acute, such as repression Invited inside erotic mind control conflicts back into the unconscioussublimation channeling the sexual drives into the achievement socially acceptable goals, in art, science, poetry, and so forthfixation the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stagesand regression a return to the behavior characteristic of one of the stages.

Repression is thus one of the central defense mechanisms by which the ego seeks to avoid internal conflict and pain, and to reconcile reality with the demands of both id and super-ego. As such it is completely normal and an integral part of the developmental process through which every child must pass on the way to adulthood. However, the repressed instinctual drive, as an energy-form, is not and cannot be destroyed when it is repressed—it continues to exist intact in the unconscious, from where it exerts a determining force upon the conscious mind, and can give rise to the dysfunctional behavior characteristic of neuroses.

This is one reason why dreams and slips of the tongue possess such a strong symbolic ificance for Freud, and why their analysis became such a key part of his treatment—they represent instances in which the vigilance of the super-ego is relaxed, and when the repressed drives are accordingly able to present themselves to the conscious mind in a transmuted form. The difference between normal repression and the kind of repression which in neurotic illness is one of degreenot of kind—the compulsive behavior of the neurotic is itself a manifestation of an instinctual drive repressed in childhood.

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Such behavioral symptoms are highly irrational and may even be perceived as such by the neuroticbut are completely beyond the control of the subject because they are driven by the now unconscious repressed impulse. Freud positioned the key repressions for both, the normal individual and the neurotic, in the first five years of childhood, and of course, held them to be essentially sexual in nature; since, as we have seen, repressions which disrupt the process of infantile sexual development in particular, according to him, lead to a strong tendency to later neurosis in adult life.

The task of psychoanalysis as a therapy is to find the repressions which cause the neurotic symptoms by delving into the unconscious mind of the subject, and by bringing them to the forefront of consciousness, to allow the ego to confront them directly and thus to discharge them. This has become so influential today that when people speak of psychoanalysis they frequently refer exclusively to the clinical treatment; however, the term properly deates both the clinical treatment and the theory which underlies it. The aim of the method may be stated simply in general terms—to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind by excavating and resolving unconscious repressed conflicts.

Turning away from his early attempts to explore the unconscious through hypnosis, Freud further developed this talking cureacting on the assumption that the repressed conflicts were buried in the deepest recesses of the unconscious mind. Accordingly, he got his patients to relax in a position in which they were deprived of strong sensory stimulation, and even keen awareness of the presence of the analyst hence the famous use of the couch, with the analyst virtually silent and out of sightand then encouraged them to speak freely and uninhibitedly, preferably without forethought, in the belief that he could thereby discern the unconscious forces lying behind what was said.

This is the method of free-association, the rationale for which is similar to that involved in the analysis of dreams—in both cases the super-ego is to some degree disarmed, its efficiency as a screening mechanism is moderated, and material is allowed to filter through to the conscious ego which would otherwise be completely repressed. The process is necessarily a difficult and protracted one, and it is therefore one of the primary tasks of the analyst to help the patient recognize, and overcome, his own natural resistances, which may Invited inside erotic mind control themselves as hostility towards the analyst.

Taking it that the super-ego functioned less effectively in sleep, as in free-association, Freud made a distinction between the manifest content of a dream what the dream appeared to be about on the surface and its latent content the unconscious, repressed desires or wishes which are its real object. To create a cure, the analyst must facilitate the patient himself to become conscious of unresolved conflicts buried in the deep recesses of the unconscious mind, and to confront and engage with them directly.

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